I,too


Is a poem by Langston Hughes. He writes

Tomorrow,
I’ll be at the table
When company comes.
Nobody’ll dare
Say to me,
“Eat in the kitchen,”
Then.
So while I am an African, and maybe proudly so, that poem is relevant in the discussion we are about to have. Africa interests me in many ways than one. In an earlier post, I did ask if an African philosophy exist? Today I want us to revisit the topic by addressing a different question, the challenge to African philosophy. As Hughes says in his poem, I want to say with him that tomorrow, Africa will be part of humanity and history and that her philosophy will be worthy of study.
In the Journal of African Studies Vol 1, Taiwo argues that Africa’s philosophy is haunted by the ghost of Hegel. This ghost is to be found in his, Hegel’s, seminal work, the Philosophy of History in which he claimed to treat the philosophy of the world.
Hegel’s work begins thus
The subject of this course of Lectures is the Philosophical History of the World. And by this must be understood, not a collection of general observations respecting it, suggested by the study of its records, and proposed to be illustrated by its facts, but Universal History itself.
And one might think with such a bold introduction, the world does not mean northern Europe alone but the everywhere he human spirit is to be found. This however is not the case with Hegel. To Hegel, Europe is absolutely the end of History.
According to Hegel, we are told
Africa must be divided into three parts: one is that which lies south of the desert of Sahara–Africa proper–the Upland almost entirely unknown to us, with narrow coast-tracts along the sea; the second is that to the north of the desert–European Africa (if we may so call it)–a coastland; the third is the river region of the Nile, the only valley-land of Africa, and which is in connection with Asia
And I think it is this view of Hegel that has lived on to present day, where pundits talk of Sub Saharan Africa. In Taiwo’s view, Hegel does this to make Africa safe for History. Since Egypt is no longer in Africa but the middle East, it can now be considered as making part of history. While placing Egypt in Middle East, North Africa is in Europe!
If Hegel is to be believed, the Negro
“exhibits the natural man in his completely wild and untamed state and has no knowledge of an absolute Being, an Other and a Higher than his individual Self.
One wonders then why others writing about Africa argue that it is littered with gods. That the Yoruba have a pantheon of 400 plus 1 gods if he, the Negro, has no knowledge of anything above his individual self. One wonders if this lack of knowledge is what led the colonialists to argue the African had no religion.
Taiwo concludes his piece thus
Until it is taken for granted that Africa is part of History, that the study of anything cannot be complete unless it encompasses this significant part of the world, no amount of iteration of what Africans have done will move the victims of Hegel’s ghost. Until they get rid of the voice of the Hegelian ghost whispering in their inner ear that Africa is not worth it, that Africa has nothing worthwhile to offer, they will continue to botch the challenge that Africa poses to philosophy.
Africa interests me also in its paradoxes; so rich yet so poor. Take DRC for example. It is a mineral rich country yet so poor in terms of human development, infrastructure, is insecure and has leadership challenges or Kenya for example where the ruling class are thieves and the ruled are idiots, following the thieving class blindly without question.
The second question then is what must Africans do to change their situation? My first answer is education. And no, I am not saying we are not educated, that isn’t it. Our education has failed to produce engaged citizens, thinkers and revolutionaries. It has failed to produce a people that demand accountability of their leaders. It is an Africa where the wife of a 90 year old president can proudly say the country will, if it comes to that point, be led by her dead husband. It is a shame.
The second solution, is that Africa must become less religious and more skeptical. The idea that whenever calamity strikes, everyone from the president to the poor fellow in the village hopes some god will do something must change. We must begin to question what is it in our system of doing things makes us so vulnerable. We must ask why our leaders, our research and development institutions are not coming up with solutions to some of these problems. Drought should not mean we start starving. Why are we not investing enough in foodstuff. We have a storm and floods everywhere in our cities. Why have not improved the drainage systems and so on.
On the economic front, Africa must demand fair trade agreements with her bilateral partners. Trade between African countries must go up and finally, value addition. Africa must manufacture. It must industrialize. It cannot produce cocoa and import chocolate from whatever or produce coffee beans and import processed coffee at double or three times the cost. That must change. This is the Africa I want.
Lastly, I dream of an Africa where Africans will emigrate not because of conflict but because they can afford to live elsewhere. They will not be looking for work or security but maybe for bad weather, you know like cold climes or tornadoes and such.
A man can dream.
Advertisements

About makagutu

As Onyango Makagutu I am Kenyan, as far as I am a man, I am a citizen of the world

45 thoughts on “I,too

  1. @_Mimoh_ says:

    Sure a man can dream… And a girl too. I want a country where my child can wake up and go to school without me waiting for a all that she is at a morgue somewhere, a country where you can walk into an institution and get services without the expectation that you will be asked for a bribe for you to be served, a country where the country matters more than a few individuals, a country where Moses Kuria and his cohort can rot in jail for hate speech because a judge can not be bought and doctors can never go on strike because lives are more important than money. ….yes a girl can dream.

    Like

  2. Ntangenoi says:

    Well said.
    I too dream of an Africa where leaders run for office to serve not to align their pockets with ill gotten wealth, where the electorate know the power they have and hold their governments accountable. An Africa where the AU is not just a ceremonial body but a symbol of unity and a body that plays the role of big brother if need be.
    When South Sudan voted for secession from the Sudan, it was not so that they could slaughter each other over oil or so that millions can suffer from famine and starvation, They were saying no oppression, They had a dream and like so many other African countries their dreams for good governance, democracy, respect for human rights etc remain just that, dreams.
    So yes, I agree with you we need thinkers, revolutionaries, we need many ‘Okiya Omtatas’. People who are not satisfied with the status quo

    Like

  3. That’s a really thoughtful post Mak. I enjoyed it. And some of the links.

    I was surprised to read they even studied european philosophers at soas. I had always thought that it would be … asian and african philosophers. Having said that, the article did mention a course in world philosophy so one would presuppose a few european ones would come into that. If only to point out in the case of the Enlightenment ones how racist and colonial they were – from a modern day perspective.

    All the philosophers/political thinkers I studied were European, with the furthest away from western europe coming from Russia. But I was studying a European based degree so hardly surprising. The nearest we got to outside Europe was North Africa (European Africa no less as you say) and that was only because of the colonisation at the time by the Roman Empire. Oh, and Istanbul, which was nearly Asia.

    Given your comments about everyone believing a god will magic away the problems, I am afraid European colonial powers and their wretched missionaries must take a large part of the blame for that. (I read a great short story about that, I’ll see if I can find the link, it was based on a true story of white lies and deceit as I recall.)

    Everywhere has corruption. It’s just to a greater or lesser or more obvious degree. But, yes, I hope you see a better Africa in your lifetime.

    Like

    • makagutu says:

      Thanks RS.
      You are right everywhere has corruption, but at least in most places these guys actually get caught, get sacked and sometimes serve jail time. I don’t know if there is a mechanism for recovering assets. Here, the corrupt become mps and governors or get appointed to state jobs where they get paid ridiculous amounts of money.
      Whatever the missionaries called education is not worth discussing.

      Liked by 1 person

      • basenjibrian says:

        I think in a few blessed places, corruption is treated in this way. But for every Denmark or Singapore, there is a Brazil or a United States or a Korea.

        Human nature being what it is, this is eternally true. It doesn’t mean “giving up”, but it does mean being realistic while still fighting.

        We should also be aware that purity campaigns are in themselves a source of great horror in world history. (See Mao and the Cultural Revolution…or the current Great Leader’s use of anticorruption measures (admittedly needed) to consolidate power).

        Also, absent corruption (clan or family ties, etc.) the standard method to run a state or society is bureaucracy. Which has its own negative impacts! And bureaucracy can very easily be corrupted, of course.

        Like

        • makagutu says:

          You are right that purity campaigns are in themselves a source of great horror. A way has to be found of dealing with state graft. If a single person can steal or divert funds equal to what a government department requires to run for a year, then there is a problem.

          Like

  4. Tish Farrell says:

    I agree with all your points. One the biggest problems I see is that colonialism in body may be gone, but it has left a potent and toxic residue – like dark matter. It fuels the elite and the mindset of the elite. Then there is vested interest in terms of exploitation of resources by international companies, the using of African soil to grow produce for the rest of the world, and poor return for local people in terms of wages, infrastructure or the fair payment of taxes by said exploiters. Countries like Zambia have been sucked dry for over many decades by Big Corp. Likewise DRC, and also Kenya. Apart from which, Europeans are unnerved by the communal aspect of most African cultures. They are viewed as anti-capitalistic, and we anyway hate to share in truest sense. It is so much easier not to share when you have made the owners of the desired resources seem mentally and emotionally inferior. Colonization of the mind as Ngugi calls it.

    Liked by 1 person

    • makagutu says:

      When you talk about using African soil to grow produce from the rest of the world, it brings to mind that some European introduced Nile perch into Lake Victoria. These breed killed almost all the indigenous species, more than 400 of them, in the lake. The Nile perch is mainly for export to Europe.
      The present day ruling class killed the African dream of the early pan Africans. The west has been complicit in maintaining the poor leadership we have here, though as I say, the citizens must demand better.
      I think it will take a long time to free the mind.

      Liked by 3 people

  5. john zande says:

    Tomorrow.

    Brazil has this problem. There is a saying here which I loathe: Brazil is a country of tomorrow

    There is no such thing. There is only, make today better.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. If we attempt to diagnose the African problem and to find a wholistic solution to it, we would inevitably slip into the seminal ideas of Kwame Nkrumah. He already predicted the effects of balkanization of Africa.

    Hegel’s philosophy is no major threat to Africa, the threat is more political and economical than philosophical. Most early European philosophers considered Africa to be devoid of philosophy. This is because African philosophy was fused with religion and spirituality so a clear distinction was difficult. According to Marx, art, philosophy, religion etc are themselves too idealistic. And the African mind though religious, is not idealistic.

    The economic factor, which Marx points out is the major determinant of African societal process. Those who own the means of production will always have the upper hand. Any education will fail to effect changes in the ordinary African mind if it cannot aid the individual in his search for the fulfilment of his economic needs. So in my observation as long as he has his share of the state booty he is not much concerned with the leader being greedy and corrupt.

    A death sentence for corruption is the only workable solution I can think of. And the first African nation to implement that will lead the African renaissance. On such a day, that a corrupt politician is hanged there will be explosion of joy on the streets of Abuja, Monrovia, Freetown, Mombasa, Accra, Libreville etc. African parliamentarians, the guilty ones, will tremble with fear and many hardened state criminals will run to their villages and hide in caves. I dream of an African Castro. Africa may not be rich overnight but atleast we will have our destiny in our own hands.

    Like

    • makagutu says:

      Now, we seem to agree on so many things except 1. You write

      This is because African philosophy was fused with religion and spirituality so a clear distinction was difficult.

      which shouldn’t explain the absence of African philosophy since most of western thought had to do with religious questions.

      Like

      • Western thought made clear distinctions between religious life and economic or social life. As far back as Thales, there were questions regarding matter (quantitative or economic elements) as opposed to spirit (religion or idealism). In contrast, African philosophy remained mystified or masked with customs and rituals within which philosophical precepts operated. Reasons for such customs were tacit rather than explicit. One could understand the philosophy of the people only by naturalistic observation because there were no written records. The indigenous African idea that man is mortal, his place in the universe is only transitory, he is subject to the will of the gods, he shall be judged within 40 days of his death, in accordance with his own deeds in the here and now and if found guilty he shall suffer eternal death and oblivion, is a deterministic African philosophy.

        Like

    • basenjibrian says:

      But the definition of “corruption” is itself so imprecise. Corruption charges will be used to attack political enemies (or enemy clans, tribes, or political parties). I am also really terrified of the mass death that is implied in your last paragraph. Who is going to be doing the hanging? What happens if they themselves accepted “a gift” or helped a “friend of a friend”? When does the capital punishment campaign end?

      Look at our friend John Zande’s Brazil. If EVERYONE is corrupt (as appears to be the case), is EVERYONE going to be imprisoned? Even if that is possible, who will have the skills to run the country after the Great Purge Forward? we easily disparage “politicians” but the reality is that all government above the tiny band requires political skills…and some of those skills can appear to (or actually do) involve corruption.

      I am a little concerned about some of the…dogmatic…solutions in this comment thread. Maybe because I am also somewhat cynical about the ability of human societies to purify themselves?

      Like

      • basenjibran, when one diverts state money into his own private bank account or his family’s account one is said to be corrupt. Corruption stifles an economy, business becomes extremely difficult because costs have to be inflated in order to regain monies paid to corrupt politicians. Monies meant to be used to build or rehabilitate a hospital for some poor villagers are diverted into private accounts. As a result children die of easily curable diseases when they fall sick. Monies set aside to be used to create jobs for the youth are mysteriously siphoned into private accounts. So the youth end up in crime and prostitution. Yet no corrupt official is punished. One who is corrupt also indirectly murders and he who murders the murderer is a just man. By “death sentence” I mean a conviction through due process of law, supported by hard evidence not political vendetta. Reducing corruption through capital punishment was key to the Chinese economic rise. I can tell you that not more than three people would have been hanged and politicians in all of Africa would have had a renewed mindset. They are corrupt to the bone but they are also very fearful. This is the only solution to corruption I can think of. Any other solution is secondary. Even if people are educated they will all end up being corrupt as long as none is punished.

        Like

        • makagutu says:

          Our problem is that every high profile case is politicized. How is this to be addressed?
          How is it possible that no politician, in this part of the world, is ever found guilty of embezzlement?

          Like

          • Corruption is everywhere I agree but it’s worst in Africa. In Europe workers pay as much as 40% in taxes but they also enjoy relatively better utility and social services. They never have to suffer frequent power outages or directly pay a policeman to arrest a thief.

            Although high profile corruption cases in Africa are politicised, most enlightened people can discern the facts. All that is needed is a visionary leader with the will power and a few supporting incorruptible others to help bring about positive change in Africa. It’s difficult to imagine this but sometimes evolutionary dynamics can trigger a sudden change often in an opposite direction. Agent based modeling tells us that once an agent changes characteristics, dependences also change to accommodate those new characteristics. Dependencies that do not change or adapt go extinct. Simply put, many people will stop stealing if others also stop.

            Like

          • makagutu says:

            The prosecutors are appointees of the corrupt political class. The judges do the bidding of that same class. Every day a chicken thief is sent to the tears but never a politician or a business person who has swindled the public. Maybe it is better to divert public funds than steal a chicken.
            Have you read about what the political class in Romania recently proposed? To weaken anti- corruption legislation. I think it passed in their parliament. I am almost certain that proposal would pass anywhere in Africa.
            All visionary leaders are either dead or will be assassinated by the CIA or the French or the Brits

            Like

        • basenjibrian says:

          I understand all that. Monies need to be managed carefully and according to proper procedures. Which has its own issues (the bureaucritization I mention)

          But even here, your definitions of corruption can be expansive. What does “monies to create jobs for the youth” even mean outside the context of someone, somewhere, being paid, even if the person being paid is a bureaucrat receiving a salary? Is someone “building a hospital” supposed to do it for free? Is everyone involved in these worthy causes supposed to be utterly selfless and donate all of their time and resources? That is not how human societies and economies work.

          It can also be argued that charitable programs and government actions devoid of economic considerations in themselves are harmful.

          I am not denying the tax corruption imposes on human societies. I am merely noting that this has always been true to some extent.

          I am vehemently opposed to capital punishment by the State. Corruption was certainly not eliminated by the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Even the current anti-corruption campaign (which does not typically involve capital punishment for corruption anyway) has not totally eliminated corruption. In a family and friends based culture like the Chinese economy, can it?

          I am not sure “fear” is the best way to run a society or economy. But then, from past posts here, you have (I recall) an apocalyptic and religious view of things. As a serious skeptic of human perfectability, I am not willing to give a government the right to kill “corrupt” officials.

          Like

          • I don’t expect you to understand issues in Africa the way someone who has lived in Africa understands. Different people require different solutions to their problems. The biggest mistake so far is that capitalism is working for the west so it will work for Africa. And if we believe corruption cannot be eradicated or reduced why the hell are we even having this discussion? Then lets leave the politicians alone.

            Like

          • makagutu says:

            I think our biggest problem is capitalism. A system should be found that enables everyone to prosper while encouraging innovation and active participation in governance

            Like

          • makagutu says:

            I am equally opposed to capital punishment, especially for corruption. It would be hard to tell which is not vendetta. Everyone they say has a price, who is to tell that the judge hasn’t been bought?

            Like

      • makagutu says:

        Interesting questions and observations, Brian.

        I prefer a solution that does not involve hanging or summary execution in the public square.

        I don’t think it should be looked as criminal to help your friend get a placement in government or anywhere if you are in a place to, but to then allow them to use that position to amass wealth at the expense of the general public, then there is a problem and that is the problem I have with our government. Those who have diverted funds roam the streets and are busy vying for political office and what’s worse, they are treated as demigods. It’s almost like it is an offence to be poor.

        Corruption is hard to tackle. The system thrives on it. Take the case of our traffic police and the court system. If one is booked and goes to court, the chances of wasting a whole day are so high that most prefer to bribe the police and continue their journey. The fines by the courts apart from being arbitrary are obscenely high and at the end of the day that money gets diverted to someone’s account.

        Like

        • Mak, it’s not what you prefer, it’s what will likely work. I know I sounded very harsh but in Africa that’s how you can get things changed. I don’t gain anything material by seeing people undergo capital punishment. Even in the U.S. certain states still impose capital punishment on some criminals.

          I have helped many of my friends and family get jobs and contracts without taking a penny from them but I often make it clear to them that you must be qualified for the job. You must demonstrate integrity. Don’t be loyal to your recommender but to the organisation. I have seen so many organisations in my country underperform and go bankrupt because employees are loyal to their friends and family who brought them in. A whole department within an organisation can sometimes be turned into a private family enterprise. It is my philosophy that every employment or business contract must be transparent and competitive in order to get the best people for the job so that the organisation and for that matter the country can progress. In Africa you can have a deejay suddenly become minister. He knows nothing about business so he ends up signing bogus bilateral contracts often leading to judgement debts in favour of a foreign country. This too is a big part of the African problem.

          Like

          • basenjibrian says:

            Poet: Happily your violent approach will not be adopted in most states. At least I hope not.

            You complain about corrupt officials yet have so much faith in the hangman. You remind me of the Tea Party idiots in the United States who moan about “the big government” while being craven supporters of petty police department tyrannies and the military.

            Like

          • Haha… You can only hope. I’m not violent only pragmatic and welcome to your hypocrisy. Capital punishment is already in adoption in the U. S. And people receive lethal injection every year. Have you been reading my comments at all? I have faith in the law, therefore I say due process must be applied. I won’t argue with a political infant. Clearly you don’t understand the machinery of local governance. And at what point did I ever promote “apocalyptic and religious views.” I believe in individual spirituality and I entertain ideas without actually accepting them. I have neither been a religious zealot nor an atheist and where does religiosity even come in, in the affairs of the state. If you are greedy and corrupt you sentence generations to suffering and that’s evil. Period! I have heard people who said they wouldn’t hurt an ant but they turn out to be worse than hangmen. My idea is simple, the law must work otherwise evil men will triumph over and gradually eliminate good men. Whoever is for the commonweal is good.

            Like

          • makagutu says:

            The law must be seen to blind. A situation where the chicken thief goes to jail and the billionaire thief becomes governor, then there is a problem with the law

            Like

          • makagutu says:

            America is not the paragon of virtue. Is there any place where capital punishment has worked in checking crime?
            Helping your friends get work as long as they are qualified is in order. Madagascar has had a deejay for president, I don’t know how they are managing at the moment. But yes, you have a point, many times many people are employed in positions they are not qualified for.

            Like

  7. shelldigger says:

    Those sound like very worthwhile dreams to me Mak.

    Worthwhile dreams for many nations.

    Like

  8. koppieop says:

    Interesting article, and surely the links as well – I read one today, the others later on.
    What I want to mention specially Mak, is my total agreement with your proposal for an education that requires
    <>.
    A fundamental demand that should form part of the Golden Rule.

    Like

  9. renudepride says:

    A very insightful posting, my friend. Thank you for publishing this. I really agree with your second proposition that Africans should become less religious and more skeptical. In doing so, skepticism being the journey for truth, hopefully they will be able to finally awaken to the reality that the world needs to be less dependent and subservient to the observations of Europeans and Americans. Naked hugs, my Kenyan brother and exceptional philosopher!

    Like

  10. Brilliant thoughts.

    1. Of why African philosophy is non-existent, I blame our scholars, for not telling our stories to the world. But even if they were to tell stories on our way of life, what would they report on? A mixed bag.

    2. I agree our education has failed to produce engaged citizens, to some extent. I believe only engaged citizens can develop their country, by participating in conversations and actions towards this goal. Yet again, is it a failed education system? Is it the education system that models engaged citizens? Or is it the inherent nature of the citizens themselves? We have made strides in some sectors in our development, while in others, we do poorly. In total however, we seem to play catch up to the rest of the world in most areas. And the question becomes, don’t we attempt to see ahead? To forecast? To anticipate? Do we lack the capacity to think like this?
    You can be sure, as in the case you mentioned that Mugabe might vie again at 90 years, you can be sure there are followers who will vote for him. Perhaps you’d want to learn the thought process of such followers.

    3. I don’t know what to say anymore for now.

    Like

    • makagutu says:

      1. Are they really to blame? They are mostly taught to think and view the world in that particular prism to the extent that it is almost impossible to find any critical works by Africans or anyone for that matter on African philosophy.

      2. It is the education system mainly. It is an education that does not produce critical thinkers. Our traditional systems were much better at creating engaged citizens. Each age group was involved in community affairs. Maybe we should do a mix. Promote those cultural practices that encourage community participation while at the same time adopting those aspects of the western education that encourage critical analysis. Each leader has sychophants. Mugabe has his. Trump has his. It is expected. It would be interesting to learn why such hero worship develop in societies,

      3.

      Like

      • Chiedo says:

        A man who is taught to view a setting/narrative in a particular way, and he believes it the very same way, without ever asking a ‘what if’ or a ‘why’, has some blame to take.

        When the Greeks were experimenting with their mathematics and theology and cosmology, were their African counterparts doing the same? May be. Perhaps a lack of common language and lack of writing at that time hampered the recording of history in those days, by forefathers.

        I may agree with you that education influences critical thinking. I don’t know to what extent however. I do think that creative thinking is mostly influenced by the culture of a people. The inquisitiveness of a society. If a child is born into a society where members always dream of making thinks better, then it would follow that the children would grow up asking the ‘why’s’ and the ‘what if’s’. And would naturally want to challenge the status quo.

        Like

        • makagutu says:

          You are right, brother, on the influence of culture. It would be asking too much of an individual to be so different from the culture in which they find themselves. But our cultures are no longer isolated. There have been a few years of cultural exchange and one would hope that we have learnt enough to improve our situation.
          Yes, the Greeks worked on what the African had worked out, improving it here and there. The write question for me to ask is why after 50-60 years post colonialism have we not again stood up and took up our place in the human family?

          Like

  11. rautakyy says:

    Well, what can we deduce from those Hegel quotes of yours? That he was infact a nincompoop, not unlike his contemporaries, demanding division lines between the Africa he thought he knew, the Africa he knew he did not know and the Africa he thought should not be part of Africa. A “true” philosopher should have been able to recognize his own shortcomings despite the cultural environment he was surrounded by.

    Ancient Egypt was once ruled by a dynasty from the “sub-Saharan” black population. They contributed to the birth of civilization every bit as much as more “Mediterranian” Africans. Where were the ancestors of Hegel then? It took thousands of years from that before his ancestors were even mentioned and then they were described mostly as inbred barbarians living in miserable poverty in nasty bogs of Germania by Tacitus.

    Yes, many things could be better in Africa and shall be. Yes education is the key. However, colonial imperialism that exploits Africa has not ended with the empires of France and Great Britain in losing their positions of power mere half a century ago. Capitalist corporations that recognize no nations, nor humane values have any country, that has natural resources under their thumb. My native country Finland seems to be blessed, with having no actual natural resources, or even population resources, so we have been forced to invest on education. It has paid us off many times, but it has not been an easy road and the struggle against ignorance, corruption and greed is not over for us either.

    Like

    • makagutu says:

      Hegel failed many of his descendants by claiming to speak of what he didn’t know and claiming to be authoritative. His Eurocentric vision in which all history must be European was naive.

      Capitalism and corporations that have acquired personhood status in the US, will if it is not checked, lead to upheavals beyond measure.

      Like

We sure would love to hear your comments, compliments and thoughts.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s